Landing page picture shows a green leaf from the environmental pillar. Source: Photo from Unsplash.
The World Bank curates and maintains a wide range of ESG data for policy makers, financial market participants and academic researchers. Use this portal to explore how countries compare to each other, create country profiles and learn about the latest research on ESG.

Featured items

Blog post
Stepping out of the comfort zone: What’s next for sustainability-linked financing?
Chile and Uruguay broke new ground this year by selling bonds whose costs will be linked to meeting climate sustainability goals. On its $2 billion borrowing in March, Chile will have to pay more interest if it misses targets for cutting carbon dioxide emissions and expanding renewable energy. In the case of Uruguay’s $1.5 billion October issue, the rates will rise or fall depending on whether the country meets emissions and forest targets.
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Sustainable Finance Architecture to Scale Investments in Climate Action
This event will discuss how global sustainable finance architecture reforms and development of the innovative financing tools and processes can help unlock climate finance, and what impact they would have on emerging markets, global and national development/climate agenda. The event will showcase how the World Bank Group is working with global partners to build an enabling framework to leverage climate finance for emerging market and developing economies (including International Sustainability Standards Board (ISSB) and Network for Greening Financial Sector (NGFS)), and will provide regional examples related to the implementation of these reforms in the context of the specific initiatives and projects.
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Blog post
Could a sovereign sustainability-linked bond help protect the Amazon? Part 2
In an upcoming publication “An Economic Memorandum for the Brazilian Amazon” we introduce the concept of a model-based KPI. The key idea here is that outcome and performance are not the same. Performance is the difference between an observed outcome and would have been expected, based on a forward-looking statistical model.
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Blog post
Striking the right note: KPI for sovereign SLBs
Governments in many countries are looking for innovative financial instruments to address the triple crisis of unprecedented debt levels, climate change and nature loss. Sovereign bonds – representing almost 40% of the $100 trillion global bond market -- are the largest asset class in many institutional investors’ portfolios. They are one of the key instruments for channeling capital to emerging markets and developing economies (EMDEs). Yet many developing countries are unable to deploy the capital needed to take action to avoid negative impacts of climate shocks and nature loss, particularly following the pandemic crisis.
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Income classification
Lower middle income
Geographic region
Europe & Central Asia
Climate profile
Population, total
2.57 million
Population growth (annual %)
Surface area (sq. km)
GDP (current US$)
13.68 billion
GDP growth (annual %)
GDP per capita (current US$)
Inflation, consumer prices (annual %)
Human Capital Index (HCI) (scale 0-1)
CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita)

Latest publication

For a full list of our research, see our Publications page.

Cover image of report for: Geospatial ESG

Geospatial ESG

David H. Patterson, Susanne Schmitt, Pablo Izquierdo, Paolo Tibaldeschi, Helen Bellfield, Dieter Wang, Bryan O'Reilly Gurhy, Alexandre d’Aspremont, Paola Tello, Claire Bonfils-Bierer, Steven Brumby, John Barabino, Nick Volkmer, Jingwen Zheng, Cath Tayleur, Frank A. D’Agnese, Julia Armstrong D’Agnese
An ongoing challenge with Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) efforts is access to robust data. In response, commercial data providers are continually developing solutions to improve insight. Here the authors discuss one of these potential improvements: the use of geospatial data within ESG focusing on the environmental (E) aspect. Geospatial data can, and is, being used for social (S), and governance (G) purposes, but these are beyond the scope of this paper. This paper explores and tests with real-world examples the potential of geospatial data approaches as means to provide additional insights into the environmental impacts of specific assets, companies, states or nations for sovereign debt investment. Starting with the current data landscape, the document runs through the open ‘environmental’ geospatial data portfolio, outlining its strengths and weaknesses. From this vantage point, the report outlines three case studies in Brazil across differing scales, highlighting various key metrics. The first looks at an asset level example, mining operations; secondly a corporate level example looking at soya production (where asset data is unavailable); and finally a national scale example for sovereign debt insights. Throughout the paper, commercial actors provide technical illustrations as to what more would be possible with additional resources. The document demonstrates that it is possible, even with limited resources and only open data, to generate robust geospatial ESG insights that often can be scaled globally – aiding financial institutions to better differentiate environmental impact at different scales and across different applications The paper concludes by discussing the various future technical developments, highlighting real-world developments, such as eDNA and machine learning, and their implications for the future of geospatial ESG. Finally, the authors look at a breakdown of the critical components of geospatial ESG tools, showing where they fall on a spectrum, with most underutilizing the technical toolkit available. As a result of this potential technical growth, combined with greater demand from the financial sector, they expect to see a rapid development of more refined geospatial ESG products and insights in the near future.